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Amphisbatidae Overview

          Hodges (1998) defined this family by: 1) gnathos as an articulated band with a mesial, spined bulb, 2) second abdominal sternum with venulae only, venulae or apodemes, or apodemes only, 3) female frenulum with three acanthi, 4) female retinaculum diffuse, anteriorly directed scales on 'CuA or anteriorly directed scales between CuA and R. The uncus is broad basally and tapers to a rounded or acute apes. The female has the signum absent or present as a linear band with alternating lateral, toothed, extensions.
          Larvae feed as case bearers on Asteraceae and Ericaceae or as leaf tiers/rollers on Aceraceae, Betulaceae, Cornaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae, Myricaceae, Oleaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, Tiliaceae, and Ulmaceae.
          The family includes 65 species in 11 genera in the Nearctic, Neotropical, and Palearctic Regions.

          References: Hodges (1974), Minet (1990), Stehr (1987), Toll (1964).